Ettore Virga

PhD Researcher


My research focuses on understanding membrane surface science and its role on membrane fouling in water and wastewater treatment. Besides my research activities, I enjoy coordinating meetings with our Industrial partners of Concentrates and discuss technologically relevant research in Conferences.


PhD, Membrane Science & Technology, University of Twente, The Netherlands, 2021
MSc, Chemical Process Engineering, University of Palermo, Italy, 2017

Research interests

Membrane Filtration, Produced Water Treatment, Membrane Surface Science, Low-Fouling Surfaces, Fouling Mechanisms

Selected list of publications

(Full list: Google Scholar)

  • Virga, E.; B. Bos, P.M. Biesheuvel, A. Nijmeijer, W.M. de Vos, “Surfactant-dependent critical interfacial tension in silicon carbide membranes for produced water treatment”, J. Colloid and Interface Science 571 (2020) 222-231
  • Virga, E.; J. de Grooth, K. Žvab, W.M. de Vos, “Stable Polyelectrolyte Multilayer-Based Hollow Fiber Nanofiltration Membranes for Produced Water Treatment”, ACS Applied Polymer Materials 1 (2019) 2230-2239
  • Dickhout, J.M.; E. Virga, R.G.H. Lammertink, W.M. de Vos, “Surfactant specific ionic strength effects on membrane fouling during produced water treatment”, J. Colloid and Interface Science 556 (2019) 12-23
  • Virga, E.; E. Spruijt, W.M. De Vos, P.M. Biesheuvel, “Wettability of Amphoteric Surfaces: The Effect of pH and Ionic Strength on Surface Ionization and Wetting”, Langmuir 34 (2018) 15174-15180
  • Virga, E.; W.M. de Vos, P.M. Biesheuvel, “Theory of gel expansion to generate electrical energy”, EPL 120 (2017) 46002